2. A bomber is flying horizontally over level terrain, with a speed of 275 m/s relative to the ground, at an altitude of 3 000 m. Neglect the effects of air resistance. (a) How far will a bomb travel horizontally between its release from the plane and its impact on the ground? (b) If the plane maintains its original course and speed, where will it be when the bomb hits the ground? (c) At what angle from the vertical should the telescopic bombsight be set so that the bomb will hit the target seen in the sight at the time of release?
4. A person standing at the top of a hemispherical rock of radius R kicks a ball (initially at rest on the top of the rock) to give it horizontal velocity Vo (a) What must be its minimum initial speed if the ball is never to hit the rock after it is kicked? (b) With this initial speed, how far from the base of the rock does the ball hit the ground?
5. A hawk is flying horizontally at 10.0 m/s in a straight line, 200 m above the ground. A mouse it has been carrying struggles free from its grasp. The hawk continues on its path at the same speed for 2.00 s before attempting to retrieve its prey. To accomplish the retrieval, it dives in a straight line at constant speed and recaptures the mouse 3.00 m above the ground. (a) Assuming no air resistance, find the diving speed of the hawk. (b) What angle did the hawk make with the horizontal during its descent? (c) For how long did the mouse “enjoy” free fall?
6. A truck loaded with cannonball watermelons stops suddenly to avoid running over the edge of a washed-out bridge. The quick stop causes a number of melons to fly off the truck. One melon rolls over the edge with an initial speed v = 10.0 m/s in the horizontal direction. A cross-section of the bank has the shape of the bottom half of a parabola with its vertex at the edge of the road, and with the equation where x and y are measured in meters. What are the x and y coordinates of the melon when it splatters on the bank?
7. A river flows with a uniform velocity v. A person in a motorboat travels 1.00 km upstream, at which time she passes a log floating by. Always with the same throttle setting, the boater continues to travel upstream for another 60.0 min and then returns downstream to her starting point, which she reaches just as the same log
does. Find the velocity of the river. (Hint: The time of travel of the boat after it meets the log equals the time
of travel of the log.)
8. A car is parked on a steep incline overlooking the ocean, where the incline makes an angle of 37.0° below the horizontal. The negligent driver leaves the car in neutral, and the parking brakes are defective. The car rolls from rest down the incline with a constant acceleration of 4.00 m/s2, traveling 50.0 m to the edge of a vertical cliff. The cliff is 30.0 m above the ocean. Find (a) the speed of the car when it reaches the edge of the cliff and the time it takes to get there, (b) the velocity of the car when it lands in the ocean, (c) the total time the car is in motion, and (d) the position of the car when it lands in the ocean, relative to the base of the cliff.
9. Two soccer players, Mary and Jane, begin running from nearly the same point at the same time. Mary runs in an easterly direction at 4.00 m/s, while Jane takes off in a direction 60.0° north of east at 5.40 m/s. (a) How long is it before they are 25.0 m apart? (b) What is the velocity of Jane relative to Mary? (c) How far apart are they after 4.00 s?
10. In a television picture tube (a cathode ray tube) electrons are emitted with velocity vi from a source at the origin of coordinates. The initial velocities of different electrons make different angles ' with the x axis. As they move a distance D along the x axis, the electrons are acted on by a constant electric field, giving each a constant acceleration a in the x direction. At x " D the electrons pass through a circular aperture, oriented perpendicular to the x axis. At the aperture, the velocity imparted to the electrons by the electric field is much larger than vi in magnitude. Show that velocities of the electrons going through the aperture radiate from a certain point on the x axis, which is not the origin. Determine the location of this point. This point is called a virtual source, and it is important in determining where the electron beam hits the screen of the tube.
11. A fisherman sets out upstream from Metaline Falls on the Pend Oreille River in northwestern Washington State. His small boat, powered by an outboard motor, travels at a constant speed v in still water. The water flows at a lower constant speed vw. He has traveled upstream for 2.00 km when his ice chest falls out of the boat. He notices that the chest is missing only after he has gone upstream for another 15.0 minutes. At that point he turns around and heads back downstream, all the time traveling at the same speed relative to the water. He catches up with the floating ice chest just as it is about to go over the falls at his starting point. How fast is the river flowing? Solve this problem in two ways. (a) First, use the Earth as a reference
frame. With respect to the Earth, the boat travels upstream at speed v = Vw and downstream at v ; vw. (b) A second much simpler and more elegant solution is obtained by using the water as the reference frame. This approach has important applications in many more complicated problems; examples are calculating the motion of rockets and satellites and analyzing the scattering of subatomic particles from massive targets.
12. The water in a river flows uniformly at a constant speed of 2.50 m/s between parallel banks 80.0 m apart. You are to deliver a package directly across the river, but you can swim only at 1.50 m/s. (a) If you choose to minimize the time you spend in the water, in what direction should you head? (b) How far downstream will you be carried? (c) What If? If you choose to minimize the distance downstream that the river carries you, in what direction should you head? (d) How far downstream will you be carried?
13. A water hose is osed to fill a large cylindrical sturage tank of diameter D and height W. The hose shoots the water at 45° above the horizootal from the same level as the base of the tank and is a distance 6D away. For what range of launch speeds (vo) will the water enter the tank? Ignore air resistance, and express your answer in terms of D and g.
14. An elevator is moving upward at a constant speed of 2.50 m/s. A bolt in the elevator ceiling 3.00 m above the elevator floor works loose and falls. (a) How long does it take for the bolt to fall to the elevator floor? What is the speed of the bolt just as it hits the elevator floor (b) according to an observer in the elevator? (c) According to an observer standing on one of the floor landings of the building? (d) According to the observer in part (c), what distance did the bolt travel between the ceiling and the floor of the elevator?
15. Suppose the elevator in Problem 14 stans from rest and maintains a constant upward acceleration of 4.00 m/s^2, and the bolt falls out the instant the elevator begins to move. (a) How long does it take for the bolt to reach the floor of the elevator? (b) Just as it reaches the floor, how fast is the bolt moving according to an observer (i) in the elevator? (ii) Standing on the floor landings of the building? (c) According to each observer in part (b), how far has the bolt traveled between the ceiling and floor of the elevator?
16. City A lies directly west of city B. When there is no wind, an airliner makes the 5550-kmround-trip flight between them in 6.60 h of flying time while traveling at the same speed in both directions. When a strong, steady 225-km/h wind is blowing from west to east and the airliner has the same airspeed as before, how long will the trip take?
17. In a World Cup soccer match, Juan is running due north toward the goal with a speed of 8.00 m/s relative to the ground. A teammate passes the ball to him. The ball has a speed of 12.0 m/s and is moving in a direction of 37.0 0 east of north, relative to the ground What are the maguitude and direction of the ball's velocity relative to Juan?
18. A projectile is thrown from a point P. It moves in such a way that its distance from P is always increasing. Find the maximum angle above the horiwntal with which the projectile could have been thrown. You can ignore air resistance.
19. Two students are canoeing on a river. While headiug upstream, they accidentally drop an empty bottle overboard. They then continue paddling for 60 minutes, reaching a point 2.0 kIn farther upstream. At this point they realize that the bottle is missing and, driven by ecological awareness, they turn around and head downstream. They catch up with and renieve the bottle (which has been moving along with the current) 5.0 kIn downstream from the turn-around point. (a) Assuming a constant paddling effort throughout, how fast is the river flowiug? (b) What would the canoe speed in a still lake be for the same paddling effort?
20. A rocket designed to place small payloads into orbit is carried to an altitude of 12.0 km above sea level by a converted air liner. When the air-liner is flying in a straight line at a constant speed of 850 km/h, the rocket is dropped. Mter the drop, the air- liner maintains the same altitude and speed and continues to fly in a straight line. The rocket falls for a brief time, after which its rocket motor turns on. Once its rocket motor is on, the combined effects of thrust and gravity give the rocket a constant acceleration of magnitude 3.00g directed at an angle of 30.0" above the horizontal. For reasons of safety, the rocket should be at least 1.00 km in front of the airliner when it climbs through the airliner's altitude. Your job is to determine the minimurn time that the rocket must fall before its engine stans. You can ignore air resistance. Your answer should include (i) a diagram showing the flight paths of both the rocket and the airliner, labeled at several points with
vecturs for their velocities and accelerations; (ii) an x-t graph showing the motions of both the rocket and the airliner; and (ill) a y-t graph showing the motions of both the rocket and the airline!: In the diagram and the graphs, indicate when the rocket is dropped, when the rocket motor turns on, and when the rocket climbs through the altitude of the airliner.